Urethral stricture disease (USD) is a progressive scar-forming disease commonly encountered by urologists and is challenging to manage. USD most frequently occurs in the bulbar urethra. Patients typically present with chronic obstructive voiding symptoms but may develop recurrent urinary tract infections, detrusor failure, or renal disease. The authors review the pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and evidence-based management of bulbar urethral strictures (BUS). There are multiple surgical options to treat BUS. Endoscopic techniques (eg, dilation and urethrotomy) are suitable for the initial management of short strictures but new evidence-based guidelines recommend against repeated endoscopic treatment. Urethroplasty is the gold standard treatment for BUS of all lengths, with anastomotic techniques appropriate for strictures <2 cm and tissue substitution performed for longer strictures. New techniques, such as non-transecting urethroplasty, lack long-term data but may represent a paradigm shift in the field. Future treatments may utilize tissue-engineered grafts and agents that inhibit inflammation and scar formation. [Rev Urol. 2020;22(4):139–151] © 2021 MedReviews®, LLC
Reviews in Urology, Specialty Networks’ flagship publication and the official journal of LUGPA, is designed to review the latest advances in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of urological conditions to help the busy, practicing urologist keep up to date with the rapidly evolving field of urology.
Reviews in Urology circulation is approximately all 10,000+ practicing urologists, including residents and fellows, in the United States.
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Non–muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: Overview and Contemporary Treatment Landscape of Neoadjuvant Chemoablative Therapies
Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a heterogeneous subclassification of urothelial carcinoma with significant variation in individual risk of recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive disease. Risk stratification by American Urological Association (AUA) and European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines or by using nomograms/risk calculators developed from clinical trial data can help inform patient treatment decisions but may not accurately classify all patients. Risk-adapted adjuvant (post–transurethral resection of bladder tumor [TURBT]) treatment strategies using intravesical therapies are an important means of balancing disease control with potential adverse effects. Adjuvant intravesical instillation with various chemotherapy agents and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is well studied and associated with excellent outcomes for most patients. However, upwards of 40% of patients recur within 2 years and roughly 10% progress to muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Novel approaches and agents that aim to reduce the treatment burden associated with NMIBC are increasingly needed. We review the current landscape of NMIBC as it pertains to the use of and rationale for emerging neoadjuvant chemoablative therapies. [Rev Urol. 2020;22(2):43–51] © 2020 MedReviews®, LLC